Finance and economics are complex domains, in which multiple components – such as investors, trading venues, or intermediary firms – frequently interact to generate aggregate outcomes that may be desirable or undesirable, intended or unintended. The behavior of the underlying elements is often adaptive and the aggregate dynamics can be highly non-linear. The resulting complexity can therefore be difficult to measure, model and control. The recent financial crisis revealed how interconnections between institutions can provide feedback loops and propagation channels across the financial system, nationally and globally, spilling into the real economy. There is a great need for advances in the ways in which financial and economic systems are modeled, simulated, designed, controlled and regulated. The techniques and hybrid approaches emerging from the ongoing efforts of the systems community can help address the challenge.